Kinship ties to host household heads do not necessarily shield children from restavèk treatment or status. Kinship ties and student board and room arrangements often camouflage treatment that is little different from restavèk servant children. The vast majority of restavèk children surveyed are related to host family household heads. Therefore, family ties serve as a transmission belt for child placement. This suggests that the absence of kinship ties may increase the risk of abuse and child domesticity, although it is also abundantly clear that kin ties are not a barrier to restavèk treatment.