From a dialog on the Haiti list, 8 November 2003
> The FRAPH did not appear until 1993, either in official or
> unofficial form. It was created/sponsored by a group of senior army
Yes, to be precise, a group of army officers on CIA payroll, right?
As described by investigate journalist Alan Nairn and by William Blum:
FRAPH, actually a front for the army,. . .spread deep fear amongst the Haitian people with its regular murders, public beatings, arson raids on poor neighborhoods, and mutilation by machete. FRAPH’s leader, Emannuel Constant, went onto the CIA payroll in early 1992 and, according to the Agency, this relation ended in mid-1994. Whatever truth lies in that claim, the fact is that by October the American Embassy in Haiti was openly acknowledging that Constant—now a born-again democrat—was on its payroll.
The FRAPH leader says that soon after Aristide’s ouster an officer of the US Defense Intelligence Agency, Col. Patrick Collins, pushed him to organize a front that could balance the Aristide movement and do intelligence work against it. This resulted in Constant form ing what later evolved into FRAPH in August 1993. Members of FRAPH were working, and perhaps still are, for two social service agencies funded by the Agency for International LDevelopment, one of which maintains sensitive files on the movements of the Haitian poor.
(excerpted from the book Killing Hope by William Blum, http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Blum/Haiti_KH.html
So, while it is accurate to speak of FAdH-CIA-FRAPH terror after the 1991 coup, when referring to the September 1991 coup itself, it is more accurate to speak of CIA-FAdH coup d’Etat, not FRAPH, since this particular instrument of terrorism (WMD) was still in the womb then.
Thanks for the correction M. Chamberlain.